Patients having surgery, with both local and general anaesthesia, may benefit from music being played in the operating room.
One randomised trial, of 372 patients having elective surgery, revealed that music with melodies that mimicked the resting heart rate produced a calming effect. This was evident before, during and after surgery. Music proved more effective than noise-blocking devices alone and was found to reduce anxiety, respiratory rate and heart rate in a range of patients, including some who were ventilated and in intensive care.
Conversely, other studies suggest that music increases the time taken to acquire skills, slows overall completion time for procedures, and increases general irritation.
Source: The British Medical Journal (www.bmj.com)